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Application of laser cutting technology in ships

2018-07-12

The continuous development of shipbuilding technology has led to major changes in shipbuilding materials and ship design. The application of laser technology in shipbuilding is unique, which is closely related to the processing and application characteristics of the ship itself and the characteristics of the laser manufacturing system. So, what are the specific applications of lasers in ships?


In recent years, "precision shipbuilding" and "fast shipbuilding" have become the main trends in the development of shipbuilding industry. Laser cutting technology has developed rapidly, accounting for more than 70% of the entire laser processing industry. The shipbuilding industry is mainly based on steel plate materials. Laser cutting plates can be used to replace some punching and processing methods that require complex large molds, which greatly shortens the production cycle and reduces costs. After the laser cutting machine is used to cancel the assembly allowance, the phenomenon of on-site trimming is eliminated, the labor and material waste are reduced, the assembly speed of the frame is obviously accelerated, and the assembly quality is improved significantly.


At present, the ship industry hull plate parts are mainly cut by flame cutting, plasma cutting, shearing and laser cutting. Other cutting methods have many deficiencies relative to laser cutting. In the field of shipbuilding, laser cutting avoids the need for plasma to cut the ribs, and in order to ensure the assembly clearance, the cutting allowance is set on the ribs, and the trimming is performed manually, resulting in uneven trimming quality. occur. Thereby reducing the workload of assembly, assembly cycle, material and labor cost waste.


The laser-cut marine steel plate has good cutting quality, good vertical surface of the cut surface, no slag, thin oxide layer, smooth surface, no need for secondary processing, direct welding, small thermal deformation, high precision of curve cutting, and reduced coordination. Working hours, achieving barrier-free cutting of high-strength ship plates.

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In the domestic shipbuilding industry, laser cutting does not occupy a dominant position. The main reasons include: 

1 laser cutting cost is higher than traditional cutting methods;

2 laser cutting large equipment is not suitable for the manufacturing characteristics of the ship industry, such as on-site construction, segmentation, The working environment is complex; 

3 cutting efficiency has no obvious advantages, especially the thick plate cutting in the shipbuilding industry; 

4 the maintenance of laser equipment is complicated for workers and high cost. In view of the special requirements of the ship's seesaw work on the cutting machine and the diversity of the shape of the profile used in the hull structure, the current status of the industry.